The world of fashion is ever changing and this dynamics applies to dentistry. As dentistry and dental treatments have become necessary facet of a healthy life and therefore down the line fashion prospect of tooth jewellery are also getting fused into it.
To assess the knowledge and practice of tooth jewellery among practicing dentists of Tricity, India.
Materials and Methods
A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 310 dental practitioners in Tricity (Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula), India. A self-administered, close-ended questionnaire was distributed among all the dental practitioners in order to assess their knowledge and practice regarding tooth jewellery. Responses of the questionnaire was obtained on the dichotomous scale with Yes and No. Right answers were given a score of 2 whereas the wrong answers were given as score of 1. The data was analyzed using unpaired students t-test, one way ANOVA (analysis of variance) and multivariate logistic regression.
A significant difference was observed among the genders with males being three times more knowledgeable (OR=3.5, 95%CI: 0.8-2.8). It has been found that knowledge and practice scores of dental practitioners who spend more than 10 hours per day have two times more knowledge (OR= 2.3, 95%CI:0.08-1.1) than others. The dentists holding the masters degree were having three times more knowledge than the graduates’ ones (OR= 2.3, 95%C.I:0.1-1.9).
The present study concluded that dental practitioners had sufficient knowledge about tooth jewellery. Practice of tooth jewellery in the dental clinics was found to be adequate but it was also associated with some complications. To overcome this, it is advised that professional and government bodies should create strategies for enhancing and improving people’s knowledge as well as make them aware of the pros and cons while using tooth jewellery which shall further enhance their smile.
Aesthetics has become an important aspect of dentistry over the past few years and has led to the development of new materials and techniques . Everybody wishes to create their own visual style which makes them unique and yet identifiable among the crowd. Body decoration has also gained influence with the wearing of jewellery at unconventional sites is being referred to as body art. In the developed world, the expression of individualism through such kind of body art like tooth jewellery has become most popular. Specially, younger generations follow their self made rules for looking fashionable and it applies to dentistry as well . Adolescence is a period of tremendous transformation in the appearance of body and the evolution of adult’s mind. The child’s transformation to a teenager becomes a means of communication and a language to express self individualism. Body art is one such way of self expression. Therefore, being the latest trend, tooth jewellery becomes an indication in increasing the standard of living of the individual in the society .
A case report given by Vazhiyodan A et al., in the year 2013 describes that tooth jewellery is not a new concept as native Americans also added bling to their teeth as far back as 2500 years ago. According to a recent study, that examined thousands of teeth from collection in Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History showed that the Skyce and Sapphire are the high quality tooth jewels that were most commonly used by practicing dentists across the globe.
Tooth jewellery, a cosmetic dental procedure where a diamond or a stone is attached to the teeth is gaining utmost importance with increasing awareness among people .
Tooth Gems and Dazzlers are the different types of tooth jewel available in the market . Tooth Gems include Skyce and Sapphire crystals, both are high quality tooth jewels, but Skyce put an extra sparkle into every smile with its clear crystals whereas Sapphire possesses white or blue crystals. Dazzlers are the tooth jewels which are specially designed to be bonded to the tooth with its patented backside like an orthothontic bracket which makes them lasts longer. Twinkles are pure gold with precious stones like diamond, sapphires and rubies Dental crystals are glass mounted on a thin foil of aluminium to establish an attractive smile although the bonding here is not as durable as in tooth gems, but can easily last for six months. A variety of shapes are available in the market like diamond, star, triangle, droplet, heart and round shape.
People belonging to all age groups are being attracted to this kind of body art but most commonly, it is worn by 18-35 year old hip-hop artists and disc jockeys in order to add on to the extravagance of their performance and to get an extra spark to their smile while interacting with the audience
Moreover, tooth sensitivity, plaque accumulation, aspiration, allergy, or chronic injury to the adjacent teeth/ mucosa, including tooth fracture and gum recession are few complications associated with tooth jewellery which sometimes can lead to tooth loss in an individual However, if proper oral hygiene has been maintained by the individual, these complications can be minimised and the tooth jewel shall remain on the tooth for a longer duration .
There is a scarcity of data regarding the knowledge and practice of tooth jewellery among dentists and to the best of our knowledge, no studies associated with tooth jewellery were found. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practice regarding tooth jewellery among dental practitioners of Tricity, India.
Materials and Methods
Study design and population: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 310 dental practitioners in Tricity (Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula), India in the month of August and September 2015. The protocol of the study was approved by the Ethical and Review Board of Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Panchkula district, Haryana, India. The study has been conducted in full accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.
The sample size was calculated based on the assumption that 75% of the dentist’s may have sufficient knowledge on tooth jewellery. Precision was set at 5%. For p value 0.05% and 80% power of the study, our expected sample size was 300 dentists. Therefore, a convenient sample of 310 dentists was recruited for the study.
List of all dental practitioners was obtained from the respective state Dental Council branches. From the list, a total of 310 subjects were randomly approached to participate in the study with approximately equal number of dentists from each city, 104 were from Panchkula, 108 were from Chandigarh and 98 were from Mohali participated in the study i.e. probability proportional sampling. Written informed consent was obtained from all the study subjects after explaining them the aim and objectives of the study.
A self structured, close ended questionnaire was designed to obtain dentists knowledge and practice regarding tooth jewellery and was distributed among all the subjects which took approximately five minutes to complete. The questionnaire was pretested, revised and retested before use. Prior to the study, a pilot study was performed on 30 dental practitioners in order to determine test-retest reliability of the survey questionnaire. Feedback on the clarity of the questionnaire was obtained from the respondents and was asked about any difficulty or ambiguity in answering the questionnaire so as to what sort of answer was required. Few modifications were made based on the response given by the study subjects to improve the understanding of the questionnaire.
The participants of the pilot study were not included in the final analysis. Cronbach’s alpha of the questionnaire was found to be acceptable (0.82). Content validity was obtained based on the opinions expressed by a panel of five academicians. Face validity was also assessed and it was observed that most of the participants found the questionnaire to be easy.
The final questionnaire consisted of three sections in which Section A comprised of demographic profile of the study subjects. Section B comprised of six questions to collect information about knowledge regarding tooth jewellery. Section C composed of six questions which aimed to assess the practice of tooth jewellery in their dental clinics. Questions included in the questionnaire were regarding its procedure, whether it is harmful, painful, surgical or not, and what is the main reason behind the craze of tooth jewellery among different people. Questions also included whether they are practicing tooth jewellery in their clinics, if yes then do they find it safe for more people who adopt this procedure and if no, then will they start practicing tooth jewellery in their clinics in future or not.
The participant’s responses for Section B and C were recorded dichotomously and given as “Yes” and “No”. Right answers were given a score of 2 whereas the participant’s giving wrong answers were given as score of 1, the mean score for knowledge scores were calculated and a cutoff point was set based on the mean scores. Based on the cut-off point, the value above the mean indicates higher knowledge and the value below the mean indicates low knowledge. Similarly, values above the mean depicted high practice and the values below the mean indicated low practice regarding tooth jewellery.